Cancer Health Library from the National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)
General Information About Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
Ovarian epithelial cancer is a disease in which malignant
(cancer) cells form in the tissue covering the ovary.
The ovaries are a pair
of organs in the female reproductive
system. They are in the pelvis, one on each side of the
uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped
organ where a fetus grows). Each
ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries make eggs and
female hormones (chemicals that
control the way certain cells or
Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium.
Ovarian epithelial cancer
is one type of cancer that affects the
ovary. See the following PDQ treatment summaries for information about other types of ovariantumors:
Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer are at an
increased risk of ovarian cancer.
Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Women who have one first-degree relative (mother, daughter, or
sister) with ovarian cancer are at an increased risk of ovarian
cancer. This risk is higher in women who have one first-degree relative and one
second-degree relative (grandmother or aunt) with ovarian cancer. This risk is
even higher in women who have two or more first-degree relatives with ovarian
Some ovarian cancers are caused by inherited gene mutations
The genes in cells carry the hereditary information
that is received from a person’s parents. Hereditary ovarian cancer makes up about
5% to 10% of all cases of ovarian cancer. Three hereditary patterns have been
identified: ovarian cancer alone, ovarian and breast cancers, and ovarian and
There are tests that can detect mutated genes. These
genetic tests are sometimes done for
members of families with a high risk of cancer. See the following PDQ summaries for
Women with an increased risk of ovarian cancer may consider
surgery to prevent it.
Some women who have an increased risk of ovarian
cancer may choose to have a prophylactic
oophorectomy (the removal of healthy ovaries so that cancer
cannot grow in them). In high-risk women, this procedure has been shown to greatly decrease the risk of ovarian cancer. (See the PDQ summary on for more information.)
Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer include pain or swelling in the abdomen.
Ovarian cancer may not cause early signs or symptoms. When signs or symptoms do appear, ovarian cancer is often advanced. Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer may include the following:
These signs and symptoms also may be caused by other conditions and not by ovarian cancer. If the signs or symptoms get worse or do not go away on their own, check with your doctor so that any problem can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. When found in its early stages, ovarian epithelial cancer can often be cured.
Women with any stage of ovarian cancer should think about taking part in a clinical trial. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Tests that examine the ovaries and pelvic area are used to detect (find) and diagnose ovarian cancer.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
Pelvic exam: An exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and the other hand is placed over the lower abdomen to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. A speculum is also inserted into the vagina and the doctor or nurse looks at the vagina and cervix for signs of disease. A Pap test or Pap smear of the cervix is usually done. The doctor or nurse also inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for lumps or abnormal areas.
Pelvic exam. A doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and presses on the lower abdomen with the other hand. This is done to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. The vagina, cervix, fallopian tubes, and rectum are also checked.
Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs, such as the abdomen, and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later.
Abdominal ultrasound. An ultrasound transducer connected to a computer is passed over the surface of the abdomen. The ultrasound transducer bounces sound waves off internal organs and tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer picture).Other patients may have a transvaginal ultrasound. Transvaginal ultrasound. An ultrasound probe connected to a computer is inserted into the vagina and is gently moved to show different organs. The probe bounces sound waves off internal organs and tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer picture).
CA 125assay: A test that measures the level of CA 125 in the blood. CA 125 is a substance released by cells into the bloodstream. An increased CA 125 level is sometimes a sign of cancer or other condition.
CT scan (CAT
scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. A very small amount of radioactiveglucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
Chest x-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. The tissue is usually removed during surgery to remove the tumor.
Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis
(chance of recovery).
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:
- The stage
of the cancer.
- The type and size of the tumor.
- Whether all of the tumor can be removed by surgery.
patient’s age and general health.
- Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).
Stages of Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
After ovarian cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the ovaries or to other parts of the body.
The process used to find out whether cancer has spread within the ovaries or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnoseovarian cancer are often also used to stage the disease. (See the section.)
There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:
- Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
- Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
- Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.
Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body.
When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood.
- Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
- Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if ovarian epithelial cancer spreads to the lung, the cancer cells in the lung are actually ovarian epithelial cancer cells. The disease is metastatic ovarian epithelial cancer, not lung cancer.
The following stages are used for ovarian epithelial
Ovarian cancer stage IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, cancer is found inside a single ovary. In stage IB, cancer is found inside both ovaries. In stage IC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: (a) cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries, (b) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has broken open, or (c) cancer cells are found floating in the peritoneal fluid surrounding abdominal organs or in washings of the peritoneum.
In stage I, cancer is
found in one or both ovaries. Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IC.
Ovarian cancer stage IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and has spread to the uterus and/or the fallopian tubes. In stage IIB, cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and has spread to other tissues within the pelvis. In stage IIC, cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes and/or other tissue within the pelvis, and one of the following is true: (a) cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries, (b) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has broken open, or (c) cancer cells are found floating in the peritoneal fluid surrounding abdominal organs or in washings of the peritoneum.
In stage II, cancer is
found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the
pelvis. Stage II is divided
into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC.
Pea, peanut, walnut, and lime show tumor sizes.
In stage III, cancer
is found in one or both ovaries and has spread outside the pelvis to other parts of the abdomen and/or nearby lymph nodes.
Stage III is divided into stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IIIC.
Stage IIIA: The tumor is found in the pelvis only, but
cancer cells that can be seen only with a microscope have spread to the surface of the peritoneum (tissue that lines
the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen), the small intestines, or the tissue that connects the small intestines to the wall of the abdomen.
Stage IIIA ovarian cancer. In stage IIIA, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread to other tissue within the pelvis. Cancer cells that can only be seen with a microscope have spread to the surface of the peritoneum. Cancer that has spread to the surface of the liver is also considered to be stage III.
Stage IIIB: Cancer has spread to the peritoneum and the cancer in the peritoneum is 2 centimeters or smaller.
Stage IIIB ovarian cancer. In stage IIIB, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread to other tissue within the abdomen and to the peritoneum, where it is 2 centimeters or smaller in diameter. Cancer that has spread to the surface of the liver is also considered to be stage III.
Stage IIIC: Cancer has spread to the peritoneum and the cancer in the peritoneum is
larger than 2 centimeters and/or cancer has spread to
lymph nodes in the abdomen.
Stage IIIC ovarian cancer. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread to (a) the peritoneum, where it is larger than 2 centimeters in diameter, and/or (b) lymph nodes in the abdomen. Cancer that has spread to the surface of the liver is also considered to be stage III.
Cancer that has spread to the surface of the liver is also considered stage III ovarian cancer.
Stage IV ovarian cancer. Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and may spread to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone. Cancer cells may also be found in an area between the lungs and the chest wall that has filled with fluid.
In stage IV, cancer has spread beyond the abdomen to other
parts of the body, such as the lungs or tissue inside the liver.
Cancer cells in the fluid around the lungs is also considered stage IV ovarian cancer.
Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
epithelial cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been
treated. Persistent cancer is cancer that does not go away with treatment.
Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with ovarian epithelial
Different types of treatment are available for patients with
ovarian epithelial cancer. Some
treatments are standard, and some are being tested in
clinical trials. A
treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current
treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer.
When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the treatment
currently used as standard
treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.
Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
Three kinds of standard treatment are used. These include the
Most patients have surgery to remove as much of the
tumor as possible. Different types
of surgery may include:
Hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus and, sometimes, the cervix. When only the uterus is removed, it is called a partial hysterectomy. When both the uterus and the cervix are removed, it is called a total hysterectomy. If the uterus and cervix are taken out through the vagina, the operation is called a vaginal hysterectomy. If the uterus and cervix are taken out through a large incision (cut) in the abdomen, the operation is called a total abdominal hysterectomy. If the uterus and cervix are taken out through a small incision (cut) in the abdomen using a laparoscope, the operation is called a total laparoscopic hysterectomy.
Hysterectomy. The uterus is surgically removed with or without other organs or tissues. In a total hysterectomy, the uterus and cervix are removed. In a total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy, (a) the uterus plus one (unilateral) ovary and fallopian tube are removed; or (b) the uterus plus both (bilateral) ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed. In a radical hysterectomy, the uterus, cervix, both ovaries, both fallopian tubes, and nearby tissue are removed. These procedures are done using a low transverse incision or a vertical incision.
Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: A surgical procedure to remove one ovary and one fallopian tube.
Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: A surgical procedure to remove both ovaries and both fallopian tubes.
Omentectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the omentum (a piece of the tissue lining the abdominal wall).
biopsy: The removal of all or part of a lymph node. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Some women receive a treatment called
intraperitoneal radiation therapy,
in which radioactive liquid is put directly in the abdomen through a catheter.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy).
A type of regional chemotherapy used to treat ovarian cancer is intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy. In IP chemotherapy, the anticancer drugs are carried directly into the peritoneal cavity (the space that contains the abdominal organs) through a thin tube.
Treatment with more than one anticancer drug is called combination chemotherapy.
The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
See Drugs Approved for Ovarian Cancer for more information.
New types of treatment are being tested in clinical
This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.
Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells.
therapy is a type of targeted therapy that uses antibodies made in the laboratory, from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells.
Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody being studied in treating ovarian epithelial cancer.
PARP inhibitors are targeted therapy drugs that block DNA repair and may cause cancer cells to die. PARP inhibitor therapy is being studied in treating ovarian epithelial cancer that remains after chemotherapy.
Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.
For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.
Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.
Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.
Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.
Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.
Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials. These have been retrieved from NCI's listing of clinical trials.
Follow-up tests may be needed.
Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. This is sometimes called re-staging.
Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.
Treatment Options by Stage
Stage I and II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
Treatment of stage I and stage IIovarian epithelial
cancer may include the following:
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I ovarian epithelial cancer and stage II ovarian epithelial cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Stage III and IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
Treatment of stage III and stage IVovarian
epithelial cancer may be surgery to remove the tumor,
total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral
omentectomy. After surgery, treatment depends on how much tumor remains.
When the tumor that remains is 1 centimeter or smaller, treatment is usually combination chemotherapy, including intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy.
When the tumor that remains is larger than 1 centimeter, treatment may include the following:
- Combination chemotherapy, including intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy.
- A clinical trial of combination chemotherapy, including IP chemotherapy, before and after second-look surgery (surgery performed after the initial surgery to determine whether tumor cells remain).
- A clinical trial of biologic therapy or targeted therapy following combination chemotherapy.
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage III ovarian epithelial cancer and stage IV ovarian epithelial cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Treatment Options for Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
Treatment of recurrentovarian epithelial cancer may include the following:
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent ovarian epithelial cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
To Learn More About Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
For more information from the National Cancer Institute about ovarian epithelial cancer, see the following:
For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:
Changes to This Summary (09/02/2014)
The PDQcancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Editorial changes were made to this summary.
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This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of ovarian epithelial cancer. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care.
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Clinical Trial Information
A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients. During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
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Date Last Modified: 2014-09-02
* Source: The National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query (PDQ(r))
Cancer Information Summaries ( http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq )